英语语法(二)读书笔记

语法

1. Present Tenses

1.1 一般现在时(Present simple)

  • +:verb / verb + (e)s:He plays tennis.
  • -:do/does not + verb:She doesn’t play tennis.
  • ?:do/does … + verb? Do you play tennis?

场景:

  • 经常性的习惯,反复发生的动作,描述频率的词汇包括:always、generally、normally、usually、often、sometimes、rarely、never、every day、every evening.
  • 永久性的情况
  • 陈述事实或广为接受的真理
  • 提供指导或指示
  • 讲述故事、电影、书籍和戏剧

1.2 现在进行时(Present continuous)

  • +:am/is/are + verb + -ing:He`s living in Thailand.
  • -:am/is/are not + verb + -ing:I`m not living in Thailand.
  • ?:am/is/are … + verb + -ing? Are they living in Thailand?

场景:

  • 现在的情况或状态,经常使用的单词或短语:at the moment、currently、now、this week/month/year

    I`m studying really hard for my exams.

    My cousin is living in Thailand at the moment = he doesn’t normally live there.

  • 说话间正在发生的动作:I`m waiting for my friends.

  • 趋势或正在变化的情况:The price of petrol is rising dramatically.

  • 经常发生的动作,常与always、constantly、continually、forever等副词连用,表示羡慕、批评等情绪:

    My mum`s always saying I don’t help enough!

    He`s always visiting exciting places!

1.3 状态动词(State verbs)

状态动词表示一种事实,而不是暂时的事情,通常不出现在现在进行时的句子里,表达想法、感情、感知、占有和描述等状态。

  • 想法:agree、assume、believe、disagree、forget、hope、 know、regret、remember、suppose、think、understand

    I assume you`re too busy to play computer games.

  • 感情:adore、despise、dislike、enjoy、feel、hate、like、love、mind、prefer、want

    Do you mind if I ask you a few questions?

  • 感知:feel、hear、see、smell、taste,谈论正在发生的事情时可以用can

    This pudding smells delicious.

    I can smell something burning.

  • 占有:have、own、belong

    My parents own a restaurant.

  • 描述:appear、contain、look、look like、mean、resemble、seem、smell、sound、taste、weigh

    You look like your mother

  • 当意思本身表示暂时性时,一些状态动词可以使用进行时,如:

    • What are you thinking about?
    • I think you should XXX.
    • I`m tasting the sauce to see if it needs any more salt.
    • The sauce tastes delicious.
    • She`s having a great time.(is having = is experiencing, not possession)
    • Students don`t generally have much money.(have = possession)

1.4 一般过去时(Past simple)

  • +:verb + -ed(or -d):He worked for the police.
  • -:did not + verb:She didn’t work for the police.
  • ?:did … + verb? Did they work for the police?

不规则动词:go-went,come-came,write-wrote等

场景:

  • 过去已经完成的动作,通常会在句子中提到时间(若时间已知则无需提及)。

    A few weeks ago a woman called to report a robbery at her house.

  • 按照发生顺序描述的一系列动作,表示顺序时经常会使用next、then等。

    The burglar came in through the front door, picked up the woman`s handbag, emptied it out and stole her purse.

  • 过去的习惯性动作。

    When her son got older he often went out to visit his friend after school.

  • 过去长时间保持的,现在已经改变的状态。

    Bill wored for the police force for over 17 years.

1.5 过去进行时(Past continuous)

  • +:was/were + verb + -ing:She was watching the news.
  • -:was/were not + verb + -ing:They weren`t watching the news.
  • ?:was/were … + verb + -ing? Were you watching the news?

场景:

  • 为某一动作或事件(其经常为一般过去时)提供场景,通常用到when、while和as等词语

    It happened at first in the afternoon while she was watching the news on TV.

    同一时间可能进行多个动作:

    He was listening to music and working on his computer.

  • 强调某个动作而不关注动作的完成情况

    For a while last year I was working at the cinema, studying for my degree and writing a column for the local newspaper.(不知道动作是否完成,多个动作可能不知道是否同时进行)

    Last year I worked at the cinema, studied for my degree and wrote a column for the local newspaper.(猜测所有动作都已完成,或者按顺序发生)

    状态动词一般没有进行时态。

1.6 Used to and would

  • +:used to / would + infinitive:She used to / would lock the door.
  • -:did not + used to + infinitive:I didn’t use to lock the door.
  • ?:did … use to + infinitive? Did they use to lock the door?
  1. used to / would + 动词原形 用于描述过去的习惯动作。

    She used to keep the front door locked(现在不再)

    She would leave the door unlocked whenever she was at home.

    注意:would 一般不出现在被动语态和Yes/No题目中。

  2. used to + 动词原形 用于描述现在已经不存在的过去某种持续性状态。

    Bill used to work for the police force.

    当描述某种状态持续了多久时,不用used to:

    Bill worked for the police force for over 17 years.

    would 不能与状态动词同用。

1.7 现在完成时(Present perfect simple)

  • +:have/has + past participle:She`s started the assignment.
  • -:have/has not + past participle:I haven`t started the assignment.
  • ?:have/has … + past participle?:Have you started the assignment?

场景:

  • 到现在(today,this week)为止仍为结束的一段时间

    I`ve written a rough plan this morning.

  • 现在之前的过去某个时间点已经发生的事情,句中不需要指出具体发生的时间

    I`ve collected plenty of information.(at some point before now and I will use it to write my essay)

    经常使用以下表示时间的单词和短语:ever、never、before、up to now、still、so far

    It`s the longest I`ve ever had to write.(at any point before now)

    但是如果强调的只有某件事情在某时发生了,使用一般过去时。

    I wasted a lot of time last week.(not: I have wasted a lot of time last week)

  • 起源于过去,并延续到现在的某种状态,通常和for、since连用

    I`ve worked really hard for the last two weeks.(for指某个时间段,since则指某个时间点)

  • 过去未提及的时间里发生的,与现在情况有联系的事情

    I`ve read all the books on the reading list.(I have the notes now)

    通常使用以下表示时间的单词和短语:recently、just、already、yet

    I`ve just got up.

    Have you written your assignment yet?

对比:

  • 现在完成时

    • 连接过去和现在:

      I`ve made quite a lot of notes.(at some point before now and I may make more notes)

    • 不关注过去某个具体的时间点:

      Have you read the leaflet?(at some time before now)

    • 使用说明时段仍未结束的时间表达

      I`ve read six articles this week.(this week isn’t finished)

  • 一般过去时:

    • 仅仅谈论过去:

      I made notes on the most important things.(when I did the reading and I`ve finished making notes)

    • 说明过去一个具体时间,或过去时间是可推知的:

      I read the leaflet when I was in the library.(I`m not in the library now and the reading is finished)

    • 使用说明时段已经结束的时间表达:

      I read five books last week.(last week has finished)

注意,下列时间在现在完成时的位置:

  • 在助动词和主动词之间:如recently、already、always、ever、just、never

    I`ve already written the notes.

    I`ve just finished my essay.

    ever常用于疑问句或否定句中:

    Have you ever been to Buenos Aires?

  • 在主动词之后:如all my life、every day、yet、before、for ages、for two weeks、since 2003、since I was a child等

    I`ve felt tired for weeks.

    I haven’t flown before.

    如果句子中有宾语从句,时间表达放在句尾:

    I`ve gone to bed early every night since then.

    I`ve written more than ten assignments since I started this course.

1.8 现在完成进行时(Present perfect continuous)

  • +:have/has been + verb + -ing:I`ve been studying really hard.
  • -:have/has not been + verb + -ing:He hasn`t been studying really hard.
  • ?:have/has … been + verb + -ing?:Have you been studying really hard?

描述某种状态或动作持续了多久,使用现在完成时或现在完成进行时,通常和for、since连用。

  • I`ve worked at the restaurant since I moved here.
  • I`ve been working at the restaurant for three years.

比较:

  • 现在完成进行时:

    • 强调状态或行为持续了多久:

      I`ve been reading for the past two weeks.

    • 关注行为本身(而不是关注这个行为是否已经完成):

      I`ve been writing my essay.(we don’t know if the essay is finished or not)

  • 现在完成时:

    • 强调已经完成的次数:

      I`ve read three articles.

    • 关注行为的结果或完成情况:

      I`ve written my essay.(the essay is finished but we don’t know when)