英语语法(二)读书笔记

语法

1. Present Tenses

1.1 一般现在时(Present simple)

  • +:verb / verb + (e)s:He plays tennis.
  • -:do/does not + verb:She doesn’t play tennis.
  • ?:do/does … + verb? Do you play tennis?

场景:

  • 经常性的习惯,反复发生的动作,描述频率的词汇包括:always、generally、normally、usually、often、sometimes、rarely、never、every day、every evening.
  • 永久性的情况
  • 陈述事实或广为接受的真理
  • 提供指导或指示
  • 讲述故事、电影、书籍和戏剧

1.2 现在进行时(Present continuous)

  • +:am/is/are + verb + -ing:He`s living in Thailand.
  • -:am/is/are not + verb + -ing:I`m not living in Thailand.
  • ?:am/is/are … + verb + -ing? Are they living in Thailand?

场景:

  • 现在的情况或状态,经常使用的单词或短语:at the moment、currently、now、this week/month/year

    I`m studying really hard for my exams.

    My cousin is living in Thailand at the moment = he doesn’t normally live there.

  • 说话间正在发生的动作:I`m waiting for my friends.

  • 趋势或正在变化的情况:The price of petrol is rising dramatically.

  • 经常发生的动作,常与always、constantly、continually、forever等副词连用,表示羡慕、批评等情绪:

    My mum`s always saying I don’t help enough!

    He`s always visiting exciting places!

1.3 状态动词(State verbs)

状态动词表示一种事实,而不是暂时的事情,通常不出现在现在进行时的句子里,表达想法、感情、感知、占有和描述等状态。

  • 想法:agree、assume、believe、disagree、forget、hope、 know、regret、remember、suppose、think、understand

    I assume you`re too busy to play computer games.

  • 感情:adore、despise、dislike、enjoy、feel、hate、like、love、mind、prefer、want

    Do you mind if I ask you a few questions?

  • 感知:feel、hear、see、smell、taste,谈论正在发生的事情时可以用can

    This pudding smells delicious.

    I can smell something burning.

  • 占有:have、own、belong

    My parents own a restaurant.

  • 描述:appear、contain、look、look like、mean、resemble、seem、smell、sound、taste、weigh

    You look like your mother

  • 当意思本身表示暂时性时,一些状态动词可以使用进行时,如:

    • What are you thinking about?
    • I think you should XXX.
    • I`m tasting the sauce to see if it needs any more salt.
    • The sauce tastes delicious.
    • She`s having a great time.(is having = is experiencing, not possession)
    • Students don`t generally have much money.(have = possession)

1.4 现在完成时(Present perfect simple)

  • +:have/has + past participle:She`s started the assignment.
  • -:have/has not + past participle:I haven`t started the assignment.
  • ?:have/has … + past participle?:Have you started the assignment?

场景:

  • 到现在(today,this week)为止仍为结束的一段时间

    I`ve written a rough plan this morning.

  • 现在之前的过去某个时间点已经发生的事情,句中不需要指出具体发生的时间

    I`ve collected plenty of information.(at some point before now and I will use it to write my essay)

    经常使用以下表示时间的单词和短语:ever、never、before、up to now、still、so far

    It`s the longest I`ve ever had to write.(at any point before now)

    但是如果强调的只有某件事情在某时发生了,使用一般过去时。

    I wasted a lot of time last week.(not: I have wasted a lot of time last week)

  • 起源于过去,并延续到现在的某种状态,通常和for、since连用

    I`ve worked really hard for the last two weeks.(for指某个时间段,since则指某个时间点)

  • 过去未提及的时间里发生的,与现在情况有联系的事情

    I`ve read all the books on the reading list.(I have the notes now)

    通常使用以下表示时间的单词和短语:recently、just、already、yet

    I`ve just got up.

    Have you written your assignment yet?

对比:

  • 现在完成时

    • 连接过去和现在:

      I`ve made quite a lot of notes.(at some point before now and I may make more notes)

    • 不关注过去某个具体的时间点:

      Have you read the leaflet?(at some time before now)

    • 使用说明时段仍未结束的时间表达

      I`ve read six articles this week.(this week isn’t finished)

  • 一般过去时:

    • 仅仅谈论过去:

      I made notes on the most important things.(when I did the reading and I`ve finished making notes)

    • 说明过去一个具体时间,或过去时间是可推知的:

      I read the leaflet when I was in the library.(I`m not in the library now and the reading is finished)

    • 使用说明时段已经结束的时间表达:

      I read five books last week.(last week has finished)

注意,下列时间在现在完成时的位置:

  • 在助动词和主动词之间:如recently、already、always、ever、just、never

    I`ve already written the notes.

    I`ve just finished my essay.

    ever常用于疑问句或否定句中:

    Have you ever been to Buenos Aires?

  • 在主动词之后:如all my life、every day、yet、before、for ages、for two weeks、since 2003、since I was a child等

    I`ve felt tired for weeks.

    I haven’t flown before.

    如果句子中有宾语从句,时间表达放在句尾:

    I`ve gone to bed early every night since then.

    I`ve written more than ten assignments since I started this course.

1.5 现在完成进行时(Present perfect continuous)

  • +:have/has been + verb + -ing:I`ve been studying really hard.
  • -:have/has not been + verb + -ing:He hasn`t been studying really hard.
  • ?:have/has … been + verb + -ing?:Have you been studying really hard?

描述某种状态或动作持续了多久,使用现在完成时或现在完成进行时,通常和for、since连用。

  • I`ve worked at the restaurant since I moved here.
  • I`ve been working at the restaurant for three years.

比较:

  • 现在完成进行时:

    • 强调状态或行为持续了多久:

      I`ve been reading for the past two weeks.

    • 关注行为本身(而不是关注这个行为是否已经完成):

      I`ve been writing my essay.(we don’t know if the essay is finished or not)

  • 现在完成时:

    • 强调已经完成的次数:

      I`ve read three articles.

    • 关注行为的结果或完成情况:

      I`ve written my essay.(the essay is finished but we don’t know when)

2. Past Tenses

2.1 一般过去时(Past simple)

  • +:verb + -ed(or -d):He worked for the police.
  • -:did not + verb:She didn’t work for the police.
  • ?:did … + verb? Did they work for the police?

不规则动词:go-went,come-came,write-wrote等

场景:

  • 过去已经完成的动作,通常会在句子中提到时间(若时间已知则无需提及)。

    A few weeks ago a woman called to report a robbery at her house.

  • 按照发生顺序描述的一系列动作,表示顺序时经常会使用next、then等。

    The burglar came in through the front door, picked up the woman`s handbag, emptied it out and stole her purse.

  • 过去的习惯性动作。

    When her son got older he often went out to visit his friend after school.

  • 过去长时间保持的,现在已经改变的状态。

    Bill wored for the police force for over 17 years.

2.2 过去进行时(Past continuous)

  • +:was/were + verb + -ing:She was watching the news.
  • -:was/were not + verb + -ing:They weren`t watching the news.
  • ?:was/were … + verb + -ing? Were you watching the news?

场景:

  • 为某一动作或事件(其经常为一般过去时)提供场景,通常用到when、while和as等词语

    It happened at first in the afternoon while she was watching the news on TV.

    同一时间可能进行多个动作:

    He was listening to music and working on his computer.

  • 强调某个动作而不关注动作的完成情况

    For a while last year I was working at the cinema, studying for my degree and writing a column for the local newspaper.(不知道动作是否完成,多个动作可能不知道是否同时进行)

    Last year I worked at the cinema, studied for my degree and wrote a column for the local newspaper.(猜测所有动作都已完成,或者按顺序发生)

    状态动词一般没有进行时态。

2.3 Used to and would

  • +:used to / would + infinitive:She used to / would lock the door.
  • -:did not + used to + infinitive:I didn’t use to lock the door.
  • ?:did … use to + infinitive? Did they use to lock the door?
  1. used to / would + 动词原形 用于描述过去的习惯动作。

    She used to keep the front door locked(现在不再)

    She would leave the door unlocked whenever she was at home.

    注意:would 一般不出现在被动语态和Yes/No题目中。

  2. used to + 动词原形 用于描述现在已经不存在的过去某种持续性状态。

    Bill used to work for the police force.

    当描述某种状态持续了多久时,不用used to:

    Bill worked for the police force for over 17 years.

    would 不能与状态动词同用。

2.4 过去完成时(Past perfect simple)

  • +:had + past participle:They had listened to his music.
  • -:had not + past participle:They hadn`t listened to his music.
  • ?:had … + past participle? Had they listened to his music?

场景:

  • 表示过去某时前某事已经发生(过去的过去)

    His father was a composer and his grandfather had also been a musician.

    有时会使用诸如just、already等词语,这些副词会出现在助动词和助动词之间

    By the time he was 17, Mozart`s reputation had already begun to spread through Europe.

    在事件按照年代顺序出现时,使用一般过去时

    His grandfather was a musician and his father was also a composer.

  • 由时间状语(如when、as soon as、by the time、after)引出以说明时间的顺序:

  • 表示在过去某个确定的时间点之前的不明确时间,句中通常会出现always、sometimes、never、before或by + 固定时间

    His family were richer than they had ever been before.(= they were not as rich at any time before this point in the past)

    By the time he was six, the little boy had written a composition of his own.

  • 使用引出间接引语的动词来陈述过去发生的事情:

    The man told me he had met my father a long time before.

2.5 过去完成进行时(Past perfect continuous)

  • +:had been + verb + -ing:She`d been studying for ages.
  • -:had not been + verb + -ing:he hadn`d been studying for long.
  • ?:had … been + verb + -ing? Had you been studying for long?

过去完成进行时关注的是某一动作持续时间的长短或该动作本身:

Times were hard and the family had been struggling for some time.(to show how long)

Mozart`s sister was extremely gifted at the keyboard and she had been making excellent progress.(focus on the activity)

不能表示某事过去发生的次数,通常没有进行时态

I knew the way as I had visited her several times before.(not:I knew the way I had been visiting her several times before)

描述过去的失望,或没有按预期发生的事情时,使用过去完成时

I had been hoping to go with my brother on his trip but I was too sick to go.

3. Future

3.1 现在进行时

现在进行时讨论的是针对将来的计划或明确的安排。

We`re staying in a small hotel.(we have made the arrangements)

The manager is having a party just after we get back.(time expression given)

We`re playing four matches there.(future time expression understood)

3.2 Will

  • +:will + verb:We`ll enjoy it.
  • -:will not (won`t) + verb:He won`t enjoy it.
  • ?:will … + verb? Will they enjoy it?

场景:

  • 做出预测,通常基于个人观点或过去的经验

    I think it`ll be extremely hot there.

  • 表达目前尚未安排将来有可能发生的事情:

    We`ll probably stay in some sort of mountain lodge there.

  • 表达将来可能发生的非主观的事情或事实

    The best player on the tour will get a special trophy.

    The prime minister will open the debate in parliament tomorrow.

  • 表达说话者在说话间决定要做的事情

    Tell me all about it and I`ll pass on the information to the rest of the team.

    will常用来提供帮助、做出承诺或给与建议

    Don`t worry, I`ll let everyone know.(a promise)

3.3 Going to

  • +:am/is/are + going to + verb:We`re going to hire a bus.
  • -:am/is/are not + going to + verb:He`s not going to hire a bus.
  • ?:am/is/are … + going to + verb? Are they going to hire a bus?

Going to 等价于现在进行时和will。

  • 表达已经考虑过并打算实施的将来的某种行为

    We`**re going to hire** a bus.(We intent to go, but we haven`t made the arrangements yet)

    We`re going to get a boat to a couple of the islands.

  • 根据目前事实做出的预测

    Well, we`re certainly going to have a varied trip.(I am judging this from what I know about the plans)

going to和will跟在think、doubt、expect、believe、probably、certainly、definitely、be sure后面表达对将来的看法

I think it`s going to be a great trip.

I`m sure we`ll enjoy it whatever the weather.

It`ll probably rain every day.

写作时会经常使用一些短语来代替will,比如be likely to、be predicted to、be estimated to、be certain to等

The population is likely to increase to 22 million in 2011.

The average annual rainfall is predicted to be ten percent lower than today`s figures.