英语语法(一)基础

英语语法

一. 绪论

不要把语法学习的优先级排太高,最起码在能够流畅听说读写前没有太大的必要去精深语法。

1.1 英语简介

  • 英语是盎格鲁—萨克逊人的民族语。
  • 属于印欧语系的日耳曼西部语支。
  • 三个特征:
    1. 曲折变化形式较少:除名词、代词、动词、形容词和副词有变化,数词、介词、连词、冠词和感叹词都是不变的。
    2. 词汇的开放性:,一半为日耳曼语族词汇,一半为罗曼语族词汇,以及其他舶来词。
    3. 句法的灵活性:只有三种句子结构,简单句、并列句和复合句。

1.2 简单句

Simple sentences:简单句,不能再拆分的完整句。

(1)句子成分 Clause Elements

句子组成:Professor Ward teaches English to university students.

  • 主语部分(subject group):Professor Ward。

    人/物

  • 谓语部分(predicate group):teaches English to university students。

    主语后都是谓语部分,主谓宾中的谓指的是谓语动词。

    动作 Verbs + 发生了什么,根据动词分为5种基本句型:

    1. 主语 + 不及物动词:My cat + sleeps.

    2. 主语 + 单及物动词 + 宾语:I like you.

    3. 主语 + 双及物动词+ 间接宾语(indirect object) + 直接宾语(direct object):He teaches me English.

    4. 主语 + 复杂及物动词 + 宾语 + (宾语)补语:I consider you smart.

    5. 主语 +(联)系动词 + (主语)补语/表语:Elephant is tall. 非动作,is只作赋予。

      Elephant looks tall,look除了划等号,还有看起来的意思。

句子成分:

  1. 主语(subject):全句述说的对象,一般为相当于名词的词位于句首。

  2. 谓语/谓语动词(predicate or predicate verb):说明主语的动作或状态,常用动词担任,置于主语之后(区别于谓语部分)。

  3. 宾语:表示及物动词(及物表示可以直接跟宾语)的动作对象和介词所联系的对象,常有相当于名词的词担任,置于及物动词或介词之后。

  4. 补语(complement):宾语补语和主语补语

    • 补语用来补充主语和宾语意义,着重说明主语或宾语的特征,常由名词或形容词担任。
    • 表语(predicative)是位于连系动词之后的主语补语。
  5. 定语(attribute/attributive):修饰主语或宾语,限定或修饰名词或相当于名词的词,由形容词或相当于形容词的短语或从句担任。形容词常置于名词之前,相当于形容词的则置于名词之后。

    The little white rabbit ate a large carrot.

    John had a great desire to travel.

  6. 状语(adverbial):修饰谓语动词(动词、形容词、副词以及全句的),常由副词或相当于副词的短语或从句担任。修饰动词时,位于之前,也可以位于之后;修饰形容词或副词时,置于之间。

    The rabbit ate quickly.

    I don`t think the plan will succeed.

  7. 同位语(appositive):用来再把主语或宾语说一遍,与前者同等地位。

    Tom, a great warrior, win the race.

虚词在句子中一般不担任成分,位置比较固定:

  • 冠词位于名词前:

    Karl bought a video recorder.

  • 介词一般位于名词或代词之前:

    My car broke down on the highway.

  • 连词置于词与词、短语与短语、分句与分句、主句与主句之间,或置于从句之首:

    You had to have a job or go hungry.

  • 感叹词往往用于句首:

    Oh, please don`t ask me any more.

连系动词:不能独立做谓语,必须与表语一起构成系表结构,也就是所谓的合成谓语,用来说明主语的状态、特征、性质、身份等

  • 最常见的连系动词为be/系动词,即完全连系动词
  • 另外还有look/turn/feel/become/sound/remain等半连系动词(由实义动词变来的)。一般半系动词强调主语所处的状态或主语的属性特点;做实义动词时强调动作。

例如:

  • The girl is smelling the flower.(实义动词)
  • The flower smells good .

(2)动词分类

  • 实义动词:

    • 及物动词:有承受者的动词
      • 宾语
      • 双宾语
      • 复合宾语
    • 不及物动词(intransitive verbs):没有承受者的动词
  • 系动词:be,seem,turn,become等 + 表语

    • 状态系动词:be,Our future will be beautiful.

    • 感官系动词:如五感动词(fell,smell,sound,taste,look)与like搭配使用表示”X起来像“

      The meat smells terrible, but tastes good.

    • 持续系动词:用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,有keep,remain,stay,stand,continue,lie,hold,rest。

      He always keeps silent at meeting.

    • 表象系动词:表示看起来像这一概念,有seem,appear

      It seems that everything will be OK.

    • 变化系动词:表示主语变成什么样,状态变化,主要有become,grow,turn,get,go,come,run,make,fall。

      The machine went wrong.

  • 助动词:

    • be +
      • doing
      • done
    • have +
      • done
      • been doing
    • do,does,did
    • will,shall,would,should

1.3 复杂句

  • 复合句/并列句(Compound Sentence),简单叠加。

  • 复杂句(Complex Sentence),句子套句子,从属关系。

    • 主句 Main clause

    • 从句 Subordinate clause:简单句修改作为句子的句子成分。

      • 名词性从句:

        • 作主语:主语从句
        • 作宾语:宾语从句
        • 作表语(主语补语):表语从句
        • 作同位语:同位语从句
      • 作定语:定语从句

      • 作状语:状语从句

句子结构相同,但其中词语的词性未必一样:同是主谓宾

  • The rabbit ate a carrot.
  • He saw something over there.

1.4 词性/词类

句子成分不等于词类,除了谓语动词一定是动词,其余成分都包含多种词类。

很多词汇都可以属于不同词类。

  • 实词(notional word):有实义。

    1. 名词:noun,缩写为 n. ,如book,water。
    2. 代词:pronoun,缩写为 pron. ,如I,you。
    3. 形容词:adjective,缩写为 a.adj. ,如clear,happy。
    4. 数词:numeral,缩写为 num. ,如four,sixty。
    5. 动词:verb,缩写为 v. ,如come,take。
    6. 副词:adverb,缩写为 adv. ,如here,today。
      • 表示行为或状态特征,修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句。
  • 虚词(form word):无实义。

    1. 冠词:article,缩写为 art. ,如a,the。放在名词前帮助说明。
    2. 介词:preposition,缩写为 prep. ,如of,to。
      • 前置词,表示名词、代词等与其他词的关系。
    3. 连词:conjunction,缩写为 conj. ,如and,or。连接词和句子。
    4. 感叹词:interjection,缩写为 int. ,如oh,alas。
  • 短语构成的词类:

    1. 短语动词(phrasal verb):如get up,call on,take care of。
    2. 短语介词(phrasal preposition):如because of,instead of,in front of。
    3. 短语连词(phrasal conjunction):如as if,so that,as long as。
    4. 从属关联词(subordinate correlative):即引导从句的连词、疑问代词、疑问副词、关系代词、关系副词、缩合连接代词和缩合连接副词。

1.5 时态

谓语动词的特点,即时态(tense,TAM):时间 + 状态,排列组合后有16种

  • 表示动作时间(tense):

    • 过去
    • 现在
    • 将来
    • 过去将来:从过去某个时间点算将来。
  • 表示动作的状态(aspect):

    • 一般:未说明
    • 完成
    • 进行
    • 完成进行:不但完成而且继续。
  • 动作的语气(mood):

    • 虚拟语气:表示意愿,和事实相反的假设等

      If I were a rabbit.(not was)

    • 陈述语气:

      I ate a carrot and…

    • 祈使语气:

      Eat this carrot and…

1.6 助动词

助动词(Auxiliary Verbs):协助谓语动词来表达其不能单独表达的如否定、可能性、必须性等意思。

  • 完成:吃过了,have eaten
  • 进行:正在吃,is eating
  • 被动:被吃,is eaten
  • 能力:能吃,can eat
  • 可能:might eat
  • 义务:must eat
  • 否定:do not eat

作为助动词时常常没有实义,但助动词作为实义动词时有其含义,常常使人混淆:can->易拉罐,might->力量,do->做,have->拥有,be->存在

1.7 非谓语动词(难点)

动词除了充当谓语,还可以作为非谓语动词:非谓语动词可以取代所有的从句,从而简化句子,这些身份的动词不再具有TAM的功能。

  • 主语
  • 宾语
  • 补语
  • 定语

包括:

  • 动词不定式:动词形式同一般原型
  • 现在分词:和动名词,谓语动词进行时都是verb + ing
  • 动名词
  • 过去分词:同谓语动词的完成时态。

1.8 短语

分类:

  1. 名词短语(noun phrase):作用相当于名词

    My cousin is a university student.

  2. 动词短语(verb phrase):动词 + 介词/介词/名词

    I can`t believe John has failed.

    Keep an eye on the baby while I am out.

    You have to be patient with him.

  3. 形容词短语(adjectival phrase):

    The clouds soon cleared away and it became quite warm.

  4. 副词短语(adverbial phrase):

    John plays the piano very nice.

  5. 介词短语(prepositional phrase):常用作状语

    The car is waiting at the gate.

  6. 不定式短语(infinitive phrase):

    To eat three times a day is healthy.

  7. 动名词短语(gerundial phrase):

    Watching TV is a pleasure.

  8. 分词短语(participial phrase):

    The woman washing the dishes is my aunt.

  9. 固定词组(set phrase):词序和意义都固定的习语

    Dr. smith is to leave at once.

1.9 从句

分类:

  • 主语从句(subject clause):

    That we shall be late is certain.

    How this happened is not clear to anyone.

  • 表语从句(predicative clause):

    The trouble is that I have lost his address.

  • 宾语从句(object clause):

    She asked me which I liked best.

  • 定语从句(attributive clause):

    The man who I saw is called Smith.

  • 状语从句(adverbial clause):

    The house stood where three roads met.

    If she asks me, I`ll tell her.

  • 同位语从句(appositive clause):

    The fact that the money has gone does not mean is was stolen.

1.10 句子

句子(sentence)是具有主语和谓语部分的一组词,包括五种基本结构:

  1. 主语+谓语:

    Day downs.

  2. 主语+谓语+宾语:

    Rose understands French.

  3. 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语:

    He told us the whole story.

  4. 主语+谓语+主语补语 或 主语+连系动词+表语:

    He died a poor man.

    Tom`s father is a professor.

  5. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补语:

    He found George intelligent.

句子结构分类:

  • 简单句:含有主语谓语的句子。

    Fire and water do not agree.

  • 并列句:由等立连词把两个或以上的简单句合成的句子。

    I came home early, but she remained to the end of the concert.

  • 复合句:由关联词把主句和一个或以上从句合成的句子。

    He said he would come in the evening.

句子目的分类:

  • 陈述句:陈述事实

    The sun rises in the east.

  • 疑问句:提出问题

    Who is standing at the window?

  • 祈使句:表示请求

    Open the window, please.

  • 感叹句:表示喜怒哀乐等情绪

    How spotless the snow is!

二. 基础语法

2.1 GPA语法评分标准

Criterion of the writing test:

  • task response:(考察写作能力)
    1. 有没有回应题干中的所有内容
    2. 有没有清晰的个人观点
    3. 有没有在核心段落中扩展小分论点
  • coherence and cohesion:衔接与连贯(考察写作能力)
    1. 有没有清晰的论证过程
    2. 使用一些逻辑连接词
    3. 核心段落要有中心句
  • lexical resource:词汇量(考察英语水平)
  • grammatical range and accuracy:语法宽度和准确性(考察英语水平)

语法拿分范围:5~7

  • 7 分:
    • Use a variety of complex structures:使用各种复杂结构 (从句,虚拟语气,强调句型,独立主格,倒装,非谓语,介词使用等)
    • Produces frequent error-free sentences:频繁写出不犯错的句子
    • Has good control of grammar and punctuation but make a few errors:对语法和标点符号控制得很好,但可以有一点点错误(3到5个)。
  • 6 分:
    • uses a mix of simple and complex sentence forms:使用混合简单和复杂的句子形式。
    • makes some errors in grammar and punctuation but they rarely reduce communication:在语法和标点上有一些错误,但这些错误很少会影响理解。
  • 5 分:
    • uses only a limited range of structures:只使用有限的结构范围
    • attempts complex sentences but this tend to be less accurate than simple sentences:尝试复杂的句子,但往往不如简单的句子准确。
    • may make frequent grammatical errors and punctuation may be faculty; errors can cause some
      difficulty for the reader:可能会经常出现语法错误,标点符号可能是教员;错误会给读者带来一些困难。

2.2 复杂句结构

A variety of complex structures:

  • 并列句(compound sentence):并列复合句,两个或以上的主谓结构-姐妹关系;连词,中间往往有逗号。

    It is clear that the proportion of girls saw a significant increase, while that of boys decreased sharply over the decade from 2001 to 2010.

    As is shown in the diagram, the first step is to pick peaches from trees, and then they will be transported to the factory by a truck.

    • 表示并列:and,as well as,not only but also,neither nor,both and
    • 表示选择:or,either or
    • 表示转折:but,while/whereas,yet
    • 表示因果:so,for,and therefore,and thus
    • 表示顺序:and then
  • 复杂句(complex sentence):从属复合句,主干+修饰

    • 定语从句:修饰名词–adj

      • 政府应该投资在可以给大多数纳税人带来利润的领域。

        The government should invest in the fields that can bring real benefits to taxpayers.

      • 全职工作的母亲们不能很好地照顾她们的孩子。

        The mothers who work full-time cannot take good care of their children.

      • 很多学生选择那个他们可以喝免费咖啡的图书馆。

        Many students choose the library where they can have free coffee.

    • 状语从句:修饰动词或限定句子–adv

      • 政府应该给老年人提供足够多的养老金,因为他们自己无法在大城市谋生。

        The government should provide enough pensions for the elderly in the metropolis because they cannot make a living in the metropolis by themselves.

      • 当毕业生找工作时,他们通常优先重视工资。

        When graduates hunt for jobs, they usually give top priority to salaries.

      • 学生们会选择出国旅游一旦他们通过考试。

        Students will travel abroad once they pass the exam.

    • 主语从句:从句在句子中做主语

      • 政府应该做的就是给老年人提供足够多的养老金。

        What the government should do is to provide enough pensions for the elderly

      • 是否男人和女人应该均摊家务已经吸引了我们的关注。

        Whether men and women should share housework equally has attracted our great
        attention.

    • 宾语从句:从句在句子中做宾语

      • 我认为,不努力没有人可以通过考试。

        I believe that the government should provide enough pensions for the elderly

      • 我认为政府应该投资大量的钱在旅游业。

        I hold that the government needs to invest a great amount of money in tourism industry.

    • 表语从句:从句在句子中做表语

      • 我的观点是动物实验在道德上是错误的。

        My idea is that the government should provide enough pensions for the elderly

    • 同位语从句:解释说明一个抽象名词。

      • 青少年通常有错误的观点就是成功可以被取得而不用努力工作。

        Teenagers usually have the wrong idea that success can be achieved without working hard

      • 你应该有信心就是祂可以将你从一切的罪恶中拯救出来。

        You should have the faith that he can save you from all of your sins.

  • 非谓语:不是谓语,目的是规避双谓语

    谓语:do/did/does/can do/will do/have done/be doing/be done

    非谓语:to do;doing;done

    • To do/doing,做主语

      • Studying English makes me happy.
      • Playing basketball allows teenagers to cultivate team spirit.
      • Watching too much TV may cause students to be seriously addicted to the screen.
    • doing/done,做后置定语

      • The students who choose to study abroad need to learn English.

        The students=who,重复两次。定语从句无主语,不能有谓语,变为非谓语。

        主动用doing,被动用done

        The students choosing to learn English need to learn English.

      • The countries planning to develop tourism industry need to collect more taxes.

    • doing/done,做状语

      • Compared with apples, pears are usually sweeter.

      • Comparing those apples, I choose three.

      • Feeling a little cold, I plan to go shopping for clothes this weekend.

      • Influenced by advertisements, I buy many things that I do not need .

      • 结果状语:

        Nowadays, many readers can have access to e-libraries, making it possible for them to borrow books without commuting.

        Many adults go to major cities for better jobs, leaving their young children unprotected at home.

  • 介词+n/doing/being done

    • 介词做表语

      I am at home.

      I am with my parents.

      I am in dire need of financial support.

      I am in favor of animal testing.

      I am against smoking in public places.

    • 介词做后置定语。

      The people in extreme poverty usually suffer from various diseases.

      Couples with children are usually busy.

      The kite of good quality can fly high.

    • 介词做状语。

      Due to serious air pollution, many people in the metropolis suffer from lung diseases.

      Thanks to advanced medical care, people can live longer than their grandparents.

      Despite some troubles of garbage-sorting, it is still a positive development in general.

  • 主语多样性:

    • 能发出动作的对象或者主体:the government; people; they; I ; citizens; the young; the elderly
    • Doing做主语
    • 抽象名词作主语
    • It is +adj for sb to do sth
    • There be+n (就近原则)
    • 主语从句

2.3 标点符号

逗号不能连接两个完整句子:

  • John values his work, he usually gets to his office early in the morning. (×)
  • John values his work, and he usually gets to his office early in the morning.(√)

加逗号的地方:

  • 并列句:and; but; so; and therefore; or; and then; while; whereas; yet(并列连词)

    John values his work, and he usually gets to his office early in the morning.

  • 引导状语从句的连词: when; where; because; so that ; if ; although (前加中不加

    Because you are honest, I like you very much.

    I like you very much because you are honest.

  • 非限制性定语从句:完整句子, which…….(which 指代前面一件事或者一个名词)

    I have ordered an extremely pricey hotel, which costs me a great
    amount of time.
    I have ordered a hotel facing the sea, which allows me to see the
    sunrise clearly everyday.

  • 副词/介词/非谓语:放在句首,通常有逗号,Generally/In addition/Feeling awkward, I……….

    Generally, girls do not like dogs.

    At school, students usually have weekends.

    Feeling a little cold, I choose not to attend the class.

  • 插入语/同位语:插入语-给予补充信息,语法上独立; 同位语-解释说明一个名词
    (前后有逗号)

    John, I believe, is one of the most talented students in our class.

    John’s mother, a teacher in local high school, is my role model.

2.4 四个基本句型

  1. 主谓宾

    Teenagers should consume less fast food.

    The proportion of girls fluctuates.

    The proportion of girls fluctuates significantly.

    The pork consumption sharply rises.

    The sales of clothes soar.

    The number of girls studying aboard plunges.

    Environmental problems have seriously impeded.

  2. 被动语态 be done

    The fish are caught from the sea.

    Moon cakes are packed in boxes.

    Beef is frozen in the fridge.

    Children should be sent to the kindergarten.

    Some effective measures should be adopted by the government to release
    traffic pressure.

    The economic development of the area is often hindered due to serious
    environmental problems.

  3. It is + adj. for sb. to do sth. by doing sth.

    It is unhealthy for teenagers to consume too much fast food.

    It is effective to lose weight by having a diet.

    It is feasible for the government to release the traffic pressure by controlling the
    number of private cars.

    It is possible for students to get band 7 by working hard.

  4. There be +n. (就近原则)

    There should be less time spent on the screen for teenagers.

    There should be less consumption of fast food.

    There is an apple and two pears. / there are two pears and an apple.

Adolescents should spend less time on the screen.

•Less time should be spent on the screen for adolescents.

•It is beneficial for adolescents to spend less time on the screen.

•There should be less time for teenagers to spend on the screen.

•There should be less time spent on the screen for teenagers.

•政府应该采取措施解决交通问题

•The government should take measures to solve traffic problems.

•Measures should be taken by the government to solve traffic problems.

•It is necessary for the government to take measures to solve traffic problems.

•There should be some measures for the government to take to solve traffic problems.

•There should be some measures taken by the government to solve

traffic problems.

2.5 五个词组搭配

(1)Be+n/adj/prep

•It is a fact that……(表示背景)

•确实很多家长选择把孩子送到私立学校来获取更好的教育。

•It is a fact that many parents choose to send their children to private schools for better education.

•It is a common phenomenon that…..(表示背景)

•很多年长的人被选举来承担政府的重要职责而不是年轻人。

•It is a common phenomenon that the elderly are elected to undertake important positions of the government rather than the young.

•现在越来越多的人喜欢买名牌,原因是什么?这是一个积极还是消极的影响?

•It is a common phenomenon that an increasing number of customers prefer to buy famous brands of products such as bags, clothes and cars.

•It is +adj +for sb/sth to do sth by doing sth

justified 合理的 unjustified 不合理的
vitally important 重要的 pointless 不重要的
reasonable 合理的 unreasonable 不合理的
necessary 有必要的 unnecessary 不必要的
feasible 可行的 unfeasible 不可行的
effective 有效的 ineffective 无效的
fair 公平的 unfair 不公平的
appropriate 合适的 inappropriate 不合适的
realistic 现实的 unrealistic 不现实的
flexible 灵活的 inflexible 不灵活的
possible 可能的 impossible 不可能的

•I am in favor of…. 我支持….

•I am against….. 我反对…

•It is of great importance to do sth ……是很重要的

•I am with great respect to do sth

•The newspaper industry is in decline. 衰落

•The price of oil is on the rise.

•The poor countries are in dire need of financial support.

(2)vt+(冠词)+adj+ n

•play an important role in

•develop some good characters

•put in a good performance

•have a devastating effect on

•see/witness a significant increase

•pose a huge threat to

•make enormous contributions to + n

•become qualified employees

(3)Adv+Adj

•seriously polluted

•highly addictive

•incredibly beautiful

•extremely dangerous

•particularly intelligent

•especially worried

•vitally important

•程度副词

academically outstanding

socially active

economically independent

financially successful

physically strong

mentally healthy

environmentally friendly

morally wrong

visually accessible

culturally diversified

方面副词

(4)V+adv/adv+V

•increase significantly

•decrease slowly

•seriously affect

•greatly promote

•gradually become popular

•strongly recommend

•financially aid the country

benefit teenagers both

physically and mentally

heavily depend on

significantly promote

副词的位置

①放在实意动词之前; 情态动词、助动词、系动词之后。

②I am only 18.

③I have only missed the beginning.

④You should only date one person at a time.

⑤The use of machines has greatly improved our work efficiency.

(5)prep+n/doing

•随着时间的流逝

•With time going by,………介词后面不能加句子,就不能加谓语,只能加非谓语。

•As time goes by,…… 连词 + 句子

•With+n+doing/done

•With many parents choosing to send their children to private schools,…..

•With much time spent on homework,…..

介词+名词 连词+句子
Due to+n because+句子
such as +n for example+句子
despite+n although +句子

•Although learning English is difficult, I still choose to learn it with a positive attitude.

•Despite difficulties of learning English,…..

•Despite some troubles brought by garbage classification,….

•Due to a great amount of waste water discharged by the factories,….

句子翻译:

•那些社交活跃的学生通常很漂亮,这说明长相在发展性格方面扮演了一个重要角色。(which indicates that)

•Those socially active students are often incredibly good-looking, which indicates that appearance plays a significantly important role in developing one’s characters.

•根据词性背诵固定搭配–根据搭配写句子–准确/地道/多样

三. 四种时态

考点:

雅思大作文 时态
辩论类-全文呈现、论证自己观点
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Is it a positive or negative development?
Do advantages outweigh disadvantages?
讨论类-全文讨论两个观点并呈现个人立场
Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
报告类–问两个问题
What are the reasons? What are the solutions?
What are the problems? What are the solutions?
What are the effects? How to solve the problems?
①一般现在时(最常见)
②情态动词+动词原形(很常见)
Can/may/will/could/might/would
③现在完成时(表背景)
④一般将来时(条件状语从句)
流程图 时态
生命周期类 一般现在时(主动语态较多)
工艺流程类 一般现在时(被动语态较多)
数据图 时态
过去的时间 一般过去时
现在的时间 一般现在时
将来的时间 预计是
地图 时态
过去的地图+过去的地图 一般过去时
过去的地图+现在的地图 一般过去时+现在完成时
现在的地图+将来的地图 一般将来时(预计是)

3.1 一般现在时态

大作文中的主语:

  1. 能够发出动作的人或者集体

    citizens; people; the government; the society;the elderly; the young;

    the staff; employees; students; the school

    Many adolescents are addicted to video games, and they can be easily distracted from their study.

  2. Doing做主语

    •Getting addicted to video games may cause adolescents to be easily distracted from

    •犯罪使罪犯过一个悲惨的生活

    •Committing crimes causes criminals to lead a miserable life.

    •玩儿太多的电子游戏使青少年很容易被分心

    •Playing too many video games causes teenagers to be easily distracted.

  3. 抽象名词做主语(高分选手)

    •Serious addiction to video games may….

    •犯罪率的上升直接导致每个人都觉得在外工作和生活不安全。

    •A rise in crime rate will directly lead to the result that everyone feels insecure to work and live outside.

    •极度的贫穷使当地人遭受着各种各样的常见疾病。

    •The extreme poverty causes local people to suffer from a range of common diseases.

  4. It is….

  5. There be…..

是I吗?是You吗?是复数吗?
都不是—后面动词+s

•制作工艺–被动语态:be done(transitive)

•解冻: The fish are defrosted.(transitive)

• The fish thaw.(intransitive)

•Pick the peaches from the tree. 祈使句不能用在流程图中

•The cocoons are selected, and then heated in hot water.

•Coffee and milk is mixed together, and then poured into a cup.

•The whole process of producing silk cloth can be divided into 5 steps.

制作桃子罐头

•Pick-transport-wash-peel-cut in half-soak-steam-package-deliver-sell

•流程图的写作难点在于凑字数

3.2 现在完成时

•构成: have/has done

•我已经看过那个电影了—不跟你看了

•我已经吃过饭了—不要请我吃

•表示后面情况的原因或者背景

•手机的使用像吸烟一样反社会,所以应该像吸烟一样禁止手机的使用在一些地方。

•The overuse of phones has seriously affected our public life so that some people begin comparing it to smoking. (背景句-小)

3.3 过去时态

(数据图+地图)过去的时间

•构成:动词的过去式

•否定:did not +do

动态图句式

•①The number of…. increased significantly.

•②There was a dramatic increase in the number of….

•③The number of….saw a significant increase.

•④A dramatic increase was seen in the number of….

•我们班的女生的数量缓慢地下降在过去五年

•The number of girls in our class decreased slowly in the past five years.

•The number of girls in our class decreased to the bottom at 300.

•There was a slow decrease in the number of girls in our class.

•The past five years saw a slow decrease in the number of girls in our class.

•A slow decrease was seen in the number of girls in our class.

3.4 将来时态

(大作文+数据图+地图题)

•大作文:条件状语从句(主将从现)

•If the government provides enough pensions for the elderly, their living standard will be greatly improved.

数据图

•be expected /indicated/predicted to

•will probably

•In spite of some fluctuation, the proportion of older people will probably continue to increase in the next two decades in the three countries. A more dramatic rise is predicted between 2030 and 2040 in Japan, by which time it is expected that the proportion of elder people will be similar in the three countries.

地图

•be expected /indicated/predicted to

•will probably

•A house is expected to be built in the south of the town in the following 20 years.

3.5 小作文复杂句型(18句)

①…… before+句子/being done/doing(表示先后)

②……, after which +完整句子(表示先后)

③After…..,…….. (表示先后)

④It is clear/noticeable that….(表示主要特征)

⑤It is note-worthy that….(表示并列)

⑥The year XXXX marks the point at which XX exceed/overtake XX(表交点)

⑦XX stand at XX. 表示起点

⑧XX reach/arrive at XX/the peak/the bottom at XX.(表示端点值或极值)

⑨an increase was seen ……., with a jump of XX in XX years from XXXX to XXXX

(表示上升幅度)

⑩Despite some fluctuation, XX saw an increasing trend in general during this period.

⑪……,while/whereas……(表示对比)

⑫……is a little/much/far/30% /twice larger than …….(表示对比、倍数)

⑬……is twice/three times/four times as large as……(表示倍数)

⑭对象+占有+百分比+of+ 总数

占有:occupy; account for; represent; take up; make up; represent

Girls account for 20% of all students in my class.

⑮对象 have/has/had the largest percentage/proportion/amount/number among all the categories. (最高级)

⑯The whole process of producing XX can be divided into XX steps

⑰A is located/situated in/on/to the east of B

⑱A lie in/on/to the east of B

四. 其他常见句型

4.1 主谓宾-vt.+(冠词)+adj+n

The government should adopt some measures.
The government should adopt some effective measures immediately.
Parents play an essential role.
The elderly put huge pressure on the government.
My parents allow a flexible schedule.
Employers often motivate the staff by lectures
Environmental problems often hinder economic development of the local area.

4.2 主系表(Be+n)

My mother is a teacher.
It is a fact that young people cannot tell right from wrong.
It is a common phenomenon that the elderly are the leaders of the government.
It is a truth that nobody can meet our expectation all the time.

4.3 主系表(be+adj)

Those girls are incredibly good-looking.
Many video games are highly addictive.
It is vitally important for teachers to give several examples.
It is possible for students to get Band 7 by working hard.
It is effective for girls to lose weight by having a diet.

4.4 主系表(be+prep)

I am in favor of animal experiments.
I am against smoking in public places.
Students are at school.
It is of great significance/ importance to so sth.
The newspaper industry is in decline.
The price of oil is on the rise.
Poor countries are in dire need of financial help.

五. 定语

5.1 简介

  • 定语,修饰名词,一般翻译为……的,
  • 表示事物的性质或状态,
  • 分为前置和后置,
  • 常用来做定语的有:形容词、介词短语、定语从句、分词结构等。

翻译并找出定语:

  • Generation gap can be found between parents and children.

    父母和孩子间可以发现代沟。

  • A good personality exerts great impacts on one’s career.

    好的性格会对一个人的生涯造成巨大的影响。

  • Couple with children were more likely to live in poverty.

    有孩子的夫妇更有可能会生活在贫困中。

  • John’s father is a teacher.

    约翰的父亲是个教师。

  • Clearly, we are now living in an updating society/America is a developed country.

    很明显,我们现在生活在一个不断变化的社会,美国是一个发达国家。

  • Studying abroad provides students with a good opportunity to experience a totally different culture.

    出国留学为学生提供了一个体验完全不同文化的好机会。

  • Students living in Beijing can have access to the latest teaching method.

    生活在北京的学生有机会接触最新的教学方法。

  • Students locked in the classroom are starving.

    被锁在教室里的学生在挨饿。

  • That is a good book which is about social relationships.

    这是一本关于社会关系的好书。

(1)adj+n

  • a productive director
  • an effective way
  • 所有格指名词 + ` ,如 dog`s
  • 单数名词 + `s ,如the boy`s dog
  • 复数名词 + ` ,my parents`friends

(2)分词结构

分词:具有动词及形容词二者特征的词,尤指以-ing或-ed,-d,-t,-en或-n结尾的英语动词性形容词。

分词形容词:

  • 主动关系:doing,主谓
    • rising sun,roaring lion,working classes
  • 被动关系:done,谓宾
    • used cars,cleaned dishes,broken bottles

(3)n+prep

  • people in extreme poverty…极端贫困的人
  • the reason for this problem…这个问题的原因
  • the cause of this issue…这个问题的原因
  • people in different age groups…不同年龄段的人
  • the suggestion of great value/importance…
  • people in favor of animal experiments…
  • people against women taking maternity leave…
  • couples with several children…

(4)定语从句

  • 定义:在复合中修饰名词或代词的从句是定语从句
  • 先行词:被定语从句修饰的名词或代词
  • 定语从句一般放在先行词的后面
  • 引导词:
    • 关系代词:that; which; who
    • 关系副词:when; where; why

that; which; who:

  • I like the girl who works in the factory.

    the girl= who

  • I could not ignore the dog that had been barking all night.

    the dog=that

  • I would like to borrow the book which you recommended yesterday.

    the book =which

that, which, who 引导定语从句指代前面的名词,后面+不完整句子,它们与后面的部分共同构成从句。

when; where; why

  • 时间名词 + when:

    • I cannot forget the day when I met you the first time.
    • The life cycle of the silkworm begins when the moth lays an egg.
  • 地点名词 + where:

  • The government should also make people willing to stay where they were born.

  • I like the place where you study English.

  • reason + why:

  • The reason why he left the company was unknown

where的特殊用法

  • where 可以修饰抽象的地点名词:situation; field; case; job; profession; conversation; industry; point
  • Today, we will discuss a number of cases where beginners of English fail to use the language properly.
  • She wants a job where her management skills can be put to good use.
  • I like the conversation where I can talk more.
  • I like the job where I can teach grammar.
  • The government should invest in the fields where most taxpayers can reap benefits.
  • There are cases where wives complain about their husbands not doing housework.

只用which,不用that的情况

  • 有逗号,which 指前面一个事或者名词

    I like the book which/that you recommended yesterday.

    修饰–……的 70%

    BJ citizens produce a great amount of waste everyday, which contaminates the earth and river to a large extent.

    指代-这-递进(非限制)

    I cried for hours, which made my mother worried.

    指代一件事30%,这

  • 介词提前

    I like the Lamy pen with which I can write well.

    You should check the desk on which the most expensive book is placed.

    You should find the city in which your future husband can work.

其他情况都可以用that

用That而不用Which的情况

  • 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, little, few这种不定代词时

    There is little that I can use.

  • 先行词被all, each, few, much, every, no, some, any等不定代词修饰时

    All the books that you need are here.

  • 先行词被序数词或者形容词最高级修饰时

    This is the first composition he has written in English.

  • 先行词既有人,又有物的时候

    He talked about the teachers and schools that he had visited

  • 先行词被the only, the very, the last 修饰时

    This is the very gun that I am looking for.

  • 关系代词在从句中做表语的时候

    He is not the young man that he was thirty years ago.

翻译句子:

  • 可以鼓励年轻人建立积极的世界观的运动员应该代言知名品牌。(endorse)
  • 政府需要解决的主要问题是不断增大的贫富差距。(gap)
  • 大多数年轻人想居住在有更多就业机会的城市
  • 司机师傅违反交通规则的情况有时会发生当他们被顾客催促的时候。(rush)
  • 牛肉的消耗量在1992年到到达最高点5吨,那时鸡肉的消耗量只有1吨。
  • 很多人反对禁止吸烟的主要原因是这个政策会打击烟草业

ØAthletes who can encourage young people to build positive world views should endorse famous brands.

ØThe main problem that the government needs to solve is the constantly increasing gap between the rich and the poor.

ØMost young people want to live in the cities which have more job opportunities.

ØThe consumption of beef reached the peak at 5 tons in 1992 when that of chicken was only 1 ton.

ØThe situation where drivers break traffic rules sometimes happens when they are rushed by passengers.

ØThe reason why many people are against banning smoking is that this policy will attack tobacco industry.

6.3 功能句

(一)定从功能句

Which引导非限制性定语从句,指代前面一件事, 后面的谓语动词用单数。

  • The movie industry has boomed in recent years, which greatly promotes the domestic economic development.
  • People tend to check their phones when hanging with their friends, which is detrimental to enhancing their relationship.

一句话(一个现象),which:表示递进关系,对前面现象的评论或者继续阐述

  • enables/allows sb to do sth:使能够,使有机会
  • encourages sb to do sth:鼓励…
  • makes it possible/difficult for sb to do sth
  • makes it/sth/sb adj
  • means that +完整
  • contributes to/promotes…
  • is beneficial to +n/doing
  • leads to/results in +n
  • causes sb to do sth
  • prevents/deters sb from doing sth
  • discourages sb from doing sth
  • is detrimental to +n/doing
  • hinders +n /sb from doing sth 阻碍
  • has a devastating effect on
  • poses a threat to 对……造成威胁
  • poses pressure on 对……造成压力

Some people believe that children can learn effectively by watching TV and they should be encouraged to watch TV regularly both at home and school.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  • 与传统的教学方法相比,电视上的视频使学习变得简单得多,并且学生很愿意去按照这种方式学习如果他们被如此鼓励,这可能使课本与老师的课程更加得没有吸引力。
  • Compared with traditional teaching methods, the videos on TV make learning much easier and children are surely happy to learn through it if they are encouraged so, which may make books or lectures less attractive and appealing.

Some people think government should invest more money in teaching science than other subjects in order for a country to develop and progress.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  • 在科技教学方面更多的投资会鼓励科技相关产业更多的劳动力,这可能会阻碍需要创造型人才领域的就业。
  • More investment in teaching science may encourage growing workforce in science-related industry, which may hinder the employment of the fields that require creative talents.

Some people argue that too much attention and too many resources are given to the protection of wild animals and birds.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  • 随着农业、居住和工业活动的扩张,野生动物的数量见证了一个大幅度的下降,这对生态平衡造成了巨大的威胁。
  • With the expansion of agriculture, settlement and industrial activities, the number of wild animals has seen a plunge, which poses a great threat to our ecological balance.

In many countries women are allowed to take maternity leave from their jobs during their first month after the birth of their baby.

Do advantages outweigh disadvantages?

  • 如果女性可以休产假,那么公司在录取员工的时候肯定会把这个情况考虑在内,这会阻碍女性在职场中担任很重要的角色尽管他们的能力很高。
  • If women are entitled to rest for a certain period of time after giving birth, the company will certainly take it into account when recruiting, which may hinder them from undertaking important positions despite their high qualification.

(二)定从功能句

  • Those who , 那些……样的人
  • Those students who…
  • Those elders who….
  • Those who cannot focus on class lack self-control.
  • Those who do not know the psychology of consumers cannot sell.

Some people think government should invest more money in teaching science than other subjects in order for a country to develop and progress.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  • 那些盲目选择科技作为他们专业的学生可能觉得很难去找到工作,有这么多的申请者竞争。
  • Those students who blindly choose science as their major may find it difficult to secure a job with so many applicants competing.

Some people argue that too much attention and too many resources are given to the protection of wild animals and birds.

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

  • 那些反对野生动物保护的人可能认为钱应该花在公共服务上,因为这对居民的福祉更有益处。
  • Those who are against investment in wild animal protection may think that the money should be spent on public services, which they believe are more important parts for citizens’ well-being.

In many countries women are allowed to take maternity leave from their jobs during their first month after the birth of their baby.

Do advantages outweigh disadvantages?

  • 那些休完产假再来工作的女性更倾向于有一个比较好的家庭关系,从而有一个更好的工作状态,这对公司的长远发展也是十分有利的。
  • Those mothers who have taken maternity leave are more likely to enjoy a good relationship with their families and therefore put in a better performance at work, which is also beneficial to the long-term development of the company.

(三)doing做后置定语

分析过程:

  • There is a door that leads to the garden.
  • that=a door
  • 不喜欢重复
  • 省略that
  • 定语从句无主语—就不再是定语从句
  • leads to 这个谓语动词就要变成—非谓语
  • 非谓语有三个选项:doing/done/to do
  • 因为 a door 和 lead 是主动关系,所以用doing
  • There is a door leading to the garden.

案例:

  • 选择出国留学的学生们需要在前期做大量的准备工作以适应国外陌生的环境。
  • Those students choosing to study abroad need to make adequate preparations so as to adapt to a totally strange environment.
  • 经常参观博物馆的青少年通常更能在课堂上一个好的表现比起那些花大量时间玩电子游戏的青少年。
  • Those teenagers visiting museums regularly usually put in a better performance at class than those spending much time on video games.
  • 去美国旅游的印度游客占了总人数的20%。
  • The Indian tourists travelling to America account for 20% of whole.

(四)done 做后置定语

分析过程:

  • There are many children that are addicted to watching TV.
  • that = children
  • 不喜欢重复
  • 省略that
  • 定语从句无主语—就不再是定语从句
  • are addicted to 这个谓语动词就要变成—非谓语
  • 非谓语有三个选项:doing/done/to do
  • 因为 children 和 addict 是被动关系,所以用done
  • There are many children addicted to watching TV.

案例:

  • 被明星代言的广告常常成功劝说一些消费者去买他们根本不需要的东西。
  • The advertisements performed by celebrities can often successfully persuade some customers to buy the products they barely need.
  • 对于沉浸在电影里的观众来说最令人沮丧的事就是听到电话铃声响起。
  • It will be disturbing for the audience immersed in the movie to hear someone’s phone ringing.
  • 位于村庄南部的停车场已经被扩建了。
  • The car park located in the south of the village has been expanded.

七. 状语

待整理:

  • 现在分词作伴随状语